Over the year, three trends dominated the cybersecurity threat landscape: targeted attacks, social media threats and mobile malware. Targeted attacks have escalated and entered into the public consciousness with successful, high-profile attacks on companies such as Sony, Lockheed Martin and RSA.
On the social media front, cybercriminals are focusing their efforts on highly-sophisticated, legitimate-looking scams on sites such as Facebook, Twitter and LinkedIn, stealing user data and spreading malware. Looking ahead into 2012, these are the 10 top Web and email trends and threats we anticipate over the next year.
Targeted Attacks Grow More Damaging and Complex
The past two years have marked a breakthrough in known incidents of targeted attacks -- we can now discern different levels of complexity. For instance, the attack on Sony merely involved the compromise of an unpatched Sony Web server, the Lockheed Martin attack was helped by the result of a successful blended email attack on RSA.
We expect to see more targeted attacks including Advanced Persistent Threats (APTs), a subset of targeted attacks with the sophisticated Stuxnet worm being one of the best examples, and more attacks launched against large high profile commercial and government organizations.
Illicit Social Media Scams Escalate
Social media services are magnets for cybercriminals, who use spam, scams and malicious campaigns on social media sites. A popular vehicle for Facebook campaigns has been “likejacking,” a form of clickjacking where users are tricked into liking a page. Most often these pages are billed as true, sensational stories, such as deaths of Osama Bin Laden or Amy Winehouse, but then lead to a malicious page or other dubious page. Campaigns also use URL shorteners that redirect users to malicious Web pages or get users to directly paste ”video” code into a browser address bar.
Mobile Malware Menaces Users and Organizations
Android has become the most-targeted mobile platform for malware, surpassing Symbian in the first half of 2011. Another area of mobile malware that has just started to emerge includes the use of mobile devices as bots in the bot networks that are already so widespread on desktop computers. As more devices and computers become networked, attackers will attempt to compromise these resources for their own use.
All organizations should be concerned with the increasing number of employees who use their own devices at work and sync organizational data, such as email and files, to these unmanaged devices. This trend is also known as consumerization of IT or Bring-Your-Own-Device (BYOD). Organizations need to prepare for security and compliance issues posed by the introduction of devices provided by the company as well as BYOD.
Third-party Software Exploits Gain Traction
Some third-party browser software such as Java, Flash Player and Acrobat Reader have huge worldwide installed bases. Because numerous vulnerabilities in these products are found and often exploited, and because it is difficult for IT administrators to promptly update them throughout their organizations, these products have become an increasingly viable vector for attacks. Consumers face similar challenges. Sometimes the functionality that the browser software provides, or some parts of it, is unnecessary for many customers, and in those cases, disabling that functionality can effectively reduce the risk of exploits.
The variety that these technologies and file formats offer also allows use of such exploits both in widespread attacks, such as malvertisements and compromised websites, as well as in targeted attacks. Most of these files can’t be detected via URL blacklists or signature driven security protection but only through actual analysis of the embedded malicious files, which few security solutions currently perform.
Exploit Kits and Malware Reuse Proliferate
For the last few years, Zeus (a.k.a. Zbot) has functioned as one of the preferred types of malware used by cybercriminals. Until May 2011, Zeus source code was sold only to private groups, and older compiled versions of the tool were available to anyone, but then the source code of Zeus crimeware kit was leaked and is now publicly available on the Web.
Given the recent malware evolutions, we expect to see more variants of Zeus that will probably force anti-virus vendors to pay more attention to its mutations. Moreover, we expect to see additional sophisticated banking Trojans on mobile platforms that will try to bypass additional banking security checks.
Compromised Websites Serving Malicious Content Accelerates
As anti-spam and anti-malware technologies have improved, spammers have increasingly turned to legitimate compromised websites and redirection as a way around the URL reputation engines. Compromised sites are being used for spam and phishing campaigns or by botnet operators as redirectors to their malware. One of the key elements of most spam campaigns is a URL, which a user must click on to be presented with a payload.
Botnets Disruption Attempts Short-lived
In the past 12 months, we have seen a few widely-publicized botnet “takedowns”. Although these efforts are welcome, ultimately their impact on cybercrime will be short-lived. There are thousands of botnets out there that are in a constant state of flux and renewal, and, unless the operators are actually apprehended, botnet takedowns are only temporary. The Cutwail and Lethic botnets are classic examples of botnets that have been ”disabled” multiple times, but are still spamming today.
Spam Rebounds to Distribute Damaging Malware
Much to the benefit of email administrators everywhere, spam volumes plummeted by over 50% in the last 18 months. But the top five botnets alone – Cutwail, Grum, Maazben, Festi and Lethic -- are responsible for 80% of spam, and are still used for distribution of a lot of malware.
By mid-2011 there were days where the percentage of malicious spam, which includes both attachments and malicious links, reached 25% of total spam. Most of the malware was Trojan downloaders, like Chepvil, whose purpose is to fetch and install other malware such as Fake AV, data stealers like Spyeye, or spambots like Cutwail or Asprox.
Major Sporting Events Draw Major Cyber Attacks
The FIFA World Cup attracted much attention in 2010, with many victims falling for various scams, including counterfeit ticketing, fake merchandise and rogue travel agents. We hope organizers of 2012’s biggest event, the London Olympic Games, will take proactive steps in the lead-up to the event including online communications. This can be accomplished by publishing a section on their website that details the expected and possible scams and attacks that fans may face, and to promote this section extensively. Another suggestion is implementation of a fraud-watch line, where fans could submit suspicious offers for validation they are legitimate. Of course, this will only apply to the organizations working directly with the games’ organizers.
Consumers must be vigilant at all times when purchasing products and services through the Internet, including tickets or products for major sporting events. Attackers tend to stick with what works, therefore it would be prudent to understand the types of scams levied during the build-up to the FIFA World Cup. Many of these include spam offering fake tickets, spam that pushes other products but is littered with football references in the subject line and email body, fake travel and accommodation offers, and competitions for tickets and travel packages.
Attacks on Cloud Services Inevitable
Despite excellent security practices employed by many cloud providers, the fact remains that these services are likely to be prime targets for cybercriminals because cloud service providers have high profiles. The data is concentrated, and the systems are standardized; a successful breach can yield a lot of valuable data across multiple companies for a cybercriminal.
About the author: Bradley Anstis is responsible for Technical Strategy at M86 Security.
The Tech Herald welcomes 2012 related threat predictions from vendors, as long as they do not reference the end of the world and remain product neutral. All submissions are subject to editing and are due by December 20, 2011. Submissions can be delivered to [email protected] with the email subject of 2012 Predictions.